The Panic of 1893 was the worst economic crisis encountered by the century-old United States. Like the Great Depression, the 1890’s presented a double dip recession with associated bank panics. Unlike the Depression, in 1893 there was little regulatory infrastructure in place to deal with the ensuing economic problems. Unique about 1893 is the existence, in Helena, Montana, of very detailed banking records that provide insights into actions taken by individuals during the Panic. This presentation will focus on findings resulting from my investigations of these records, illustrating the characteristics of the Panic. Econometric analysis demonstrates the spread of panic, and an agent based model recreates some of the features of the panic by using agents whose behavior is driven completely by emotional contagion.]]>
Non-experimental social science is not capable of making useful, reliable, and non-obvious predictions for the effects of most social interventions. Social science very likely can improve its practical utility by conducting many more experiments, and should do so. Even with such improvements, however, it will not be able to adjudicate most important policy debates. Recognition of this uncertainty calls for a heavy reliance on unstructured trial-and-error progress. The limits to the use of trial-and-error are established primarily by the need for strategy and long-term vision.]]>
In most of 20th century Biology, the individual has been the locus of description, whether with regard to selection, development, or ecology. Efforts to understand the origin of life require that we adopt a wider perspective in which life is a planetary process. In this view individuality is only one form of organization, the existence and importance of which must be accounted for along with many other forms. Much as the physical Earth is organized into three geospheres — the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere — the whole Earth includes a fourth geosphere which is the biosphere. The origin of life is best understood as the emergence of this fourth geosphere. In this talk I will show how life is embedded in a larger arc of energy flows that spans stellar and planetary history, and connects the sun, solid earth, oceans, and atmosphere. The focal point for chemical stresses in this great arc of disequilibrium, and the foundation of the biosphere, is metabolism, and its deep history and ramifications are found in the world of microbes. I will make the case that the biosphere emerged through metabolism, which at its beginning, and even to a considerable extent today, is as much a continuation of geochemistry as a departure from it.]]>
Sue Woolsey specializes in corporate and not for profit governance. She is a director of the Invesco (Chicago) closed-end mutual funds. She is currently a trustee of Caltech and a member of the board of the Ocean Conservancy. She was a director of the Fluor Corporation until April of 2014. Dr. Woolsey is Chairman Emeritus of the Board of the Institute for Defense Analyses, Colorado College, and Rocky Mountain Institute. She headed the advisory board of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center until February 2014.
From 1989 to 2004 she worked with the National Academies, first leading the behavioral and social sciences and then for eleven years as Chief Operating Officer and Chief Communications Officer.
Sue was Associate Director of OMB during the Carter Administration, overseeing the domestic 50% of the federal budget, and earlier directed policy staff at HHS (then HEW) for Secretaries Elliot Richardson and Cap Weinberger. She led a consulting practice as a partner at Coopers and Lybrand in the 1980’s, specializing in overall governance, legal support strategy, and financial restructuring for clients that ranged from large- and mid-cap corporations to universities and research institutes. She wrote editorials at the Washington Post. She has taught at the university level, managed large-scale social science research, and managed a clinical counseling center. She was executive producer of the Murrow award-winning 2008 documentary “Meeting David Wilson.”
Her education includes a 1963 BA from Stanford in history and psychology, and MA (1965) and PhD (1970) degrees in clinical and social psychology from Harvard University.
She has three sons and two grandchildren.]]>
Tim Meyers is Managing Director of Baker Tilly where he assists in growing their mid-market and growth company practice. His passion to drive positive outcomes efficiently and his belief that life-long learning needs to be part of every organization makes him a vital asset to the Krasnow Advisory Board.
Alexander Tsiaras is an artist and technologist whose work explores the unseen human body, developing scientific visualization software to enable him to “paint” the human anatomy using volume data. The Krasnow Institute is known for its “state of the art” research in the intersection of the separate fields of cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and the computer-driven study of artificial intelligence and complex adaptive systems. Occasionally referred to as a “curiosity expert”, having Mr. Tsiaras as an advisory board member will prove to be very valuable to the Institute.
Thomas Woolston brings to the advisory board vast experience working with inventors, entrepreneurs and start-ups. These have been intellectual property intensive efforts where the core asset of the enterprise has been the new idea and that new idea has been secured through patents, copyrights and trademarks. Mr. Woolston has been able to raise start-up funds, secure customers and protect shareholder and enterprise value. This experience makes Mr. Woolston an ideal board member.
For more information on the Advisory Board, see the website.
Ischemic injury, including Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) and Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), remains one of the leading cause of motor and cognitive delay in children. Despite availability of advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) modalities that allow for quantitative measurements of white matter lesions and evaluations of brain connectivity (Fractional Anisotropy – FA; Diffusion Tension Imaging – DTI; resting state functional MRI – rsfcMRI), use of these modalities in clinical practice is limited and the clinical significance of these measures still remains to be determined. This presentation will discuss the possibility of using advanced MRI modalities in neonates and children for outcome prediction and to support clinical decisions.]]>
Our lab primarily focuses on protein engineering of reagents for the study of neurons in the brain, but the tools have applications in pretty much any organism and cell type. I will discuss our recent progress in making calcium indicators (e.g. GCaMP), red probes for deep and 2-color imaging (e.g. RCaMP), neurotransmitter imaging (e.g. iGluSnFR, GABA, acetylcholine, dopamine, etc), “integrators” of neural activity that allow whole-brain activity recording during user-defined epochs, correlative electron & super-resolution light microscopy, connectomic tracers, and rationally designed gene switches. Most importantly, the audience will choose what topics they wish to hear about.
Two basal ganglia pathways exert opposing control over motor output, such that “direct pathway” neurons promote movement, while “indirect pathway” neurons inhibit movement. More recently, these pathways have also been implicated in reinforcement and reward. I will present data supporting the hypothesis that the direct pathway neurons that promote movement also contribute to positive emotional states, while the indirect pathway neurons that inhibit movement also contribute to negative emotional states. In this way, these two populations of neurons constitute a neural link between emotional states and behavior.]]>
Nervous systems combine information from multiple modalities to decrease uncertainty and ambiguity in detecting events in the environment, but the way in which they do so is still unclear. A prerequisite for understanding the logic of multimodal integration is identifying the structural basis of multimodal convergence – at which levels in the circuit and onto which neurons do modalities converge. We investigate the principles of multimodal integration in Drosophila larva where we can combine neural manipulation in freely behaving animals, functional imaging and large-scale EM reconstruction to identify the behaviorally relevant multisensory neurons and the circuit architecture of multimodal convergence onto these neurons. We identified a complex circuit that mediates larval escape response. In this circuit we found multiple stages of functionally synergistic multimodal convergence, starting at the earliest stages of sensory processing. Combining sensory inputs early and having continuous feedforward and feedback interactions between the unisensory and multisensory pathways enables multiple independent steps of noise reduction. Multilevel multimodal integration starting at the earliest stages of sensory processing may be a general feature for ecologically relevant combinations of sensory stimuli.]]>
Apart from their activity, many factors govern the efficacy of therapeutic agents, including solubility in body fluids, circulation half-life, clearance, degradation, etc. Nano-scale drug delivery systems can be designed to modify these parameters and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of agents than otherwise would render suboptimal effects. Yet, still when these features are improved, a key requirement to achieving an efficient therapeutic outcome is the transport of drugs to sites of the body where their action is needed. Our laboratory is focusing on this aspect by targeting drug delivery systems to markers expressed on the surface of tissues and cells requiring clinical intervention. Addressing drug carriers to cell receptors involved in transport of substances further facilitates intracellular uptake, where drugs can access their site of action within cells. Furthermore, we are developing means to transport nanomedicines across cellular barriers in the body (e.g., from the gastrointestinal lumen to the blood or between the circulation and tissues), which currently represents one of the greatest challenges to success of nanomedicine technologies. These approaches are being optimized through mechanistic studies that aim at key parameters governing the efficacy of targeting and transport of nanomedicines, including those intrinsic to the physiological system itself and those pertinent to carrier design.]]>